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Aerosols are particles suspended in the atmosphere. They range in size from about 1 µm to about 20 µm. They are produced by natural processes or man's activities. They include volcanic dust, sea spray and its particulate products, wind generated dust, smoke from natural forest fires, and particles emitted during combustion
Ammonia (NH3) is toxic and corrosive to some materials and has a pungent odor. Ammonia is used in the production of fertilizers, explosives, polymers, and household cleaners
Arsine (AsH3) is both flammable and toxic. Synonyms include arseniuretted hydrogen, arsenous hydride, arsenic trihydride, and hydrogen arsenide.
Bromine (Br2) is a toxic, brownish-red element that has a bleach-like suffocating odor. Inhaling bromine gas can cause coughing, breathing difficulties, headache, irritation of the mucous membranes inside the mouth and nose, dizziness, and watery eyes.
Carbon dioxide is a common chemical compound that is often called by its formula name, CO2.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is flammable, toxic, colorless, and odorless. It is a major byproduct of combustion.
Chlorine (Cl2) is a diatomic gas that is yellow-green in color. It is a halogen that combines easily with nearly all other elements. Chlorine irritates the respiratory system and mucous membranes. It is fatal in amounts of 1000 ppm or more. Prolonged exposure at lower, non-fatal levels weakens the lungs.
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a synthetic, yellowish-green gas that is used in water purification, sanitation applications, and the paper industry. It is made stable in an aqueous solution. Chlorine dioxide is a heavy, explosive gas.
Diborane (B2H6) is a colorless gas with a repulsive, sweet odor. It mixes easily with air and will ignite spontaneously in humid air at room temperatures. Diborane is a respiratory irritant. Symptoms can occur immediately or be delayed for up to 24 hours after exposure.
Fluorine (F) is a poisonous, pale, yellow-green gas that is the most chemically reactive of all the elements. It is highly dangerous in its pure form, and can cause severe burns if it comes into contact with the skin.
Germine (F)ane (GeH4) is a flammable, toxic, colorless gas that reacts with oxidizers and halogens.
Halocarbons are compounds containing chlorine, bromine, or iodine. Examples include chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluoricarbons (HCFCs), HFC, R-21, R-22, R-134A, etc. Halocarbons may also be called refrigerants.
Hydrocarbons are organic compounds made primarily of hydrogen (H) and carbon (C) atoms. Natural gas is a mixture of hydrocarbons. Examples of hydrocarbons include methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8), butane (C4H10), pentane (C5H12), benzene (C6H6), hexane (C6H14), and heptane (C7H16).
Hydrogen (H) is a colorless, highly flammable gaseous element. It is used in the production of synthetic ammonia and methanol, in petroleum refining, in the hydrogenation of organic materials, as a reducing atmosphere, in oxyhydrogen torches, and in rocket fuels. Ordinary hydrogen gas is made of diatomic molecules (H2) that react with oxygen to form water (H2O) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), usually as a result of combustion.
Hydrogen chloride is commonly known by its formula name, HCl. It is a highly corrosive and toxic, colorless gas. White fumes form on contact with humidity. HCl often refers to hydrochloric acid, which is actually a mixture of hydrogen chloride in water.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a colorless, volatile, extremely poisonous, and flammable liquid that is miscible in water and used in the manufacture of dyes, fumigants, and plastics.
Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is a colorless, fuming, corrosive liquid or a highly soluble corrosive gas used in the manufacture of hydrofluoric acid, as a reagent, catalyst, and fluorinating agent, and in the refining of uranium and the preparation of many fluorine compounds.
Hydrogen Selenide (H2Se) While free selenium is nontoxic, many of its compounds are extremely toxic and have modes of action similar to that of arsenic. Hydrogen selenide (H2Se) and other compounds are very toxic. H2Se is used to prepare metallic selenides and organoselenium compounds. It is also used in doping gas mixtures for the preparation of semiconductor materials that contain a controlled amount of significant impurity.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2Se) is a colorless, flammable poisonous gas with a characteristic rotten-egg odor. It is used as an antiseptic, bleach, or reagant. It is found in nature, including oil and gas production.
Mercury (Hg) vapor is the vapor generated from elemental liquid mercury or compounds of mercury.
Methane (CH4) / Natural Gas Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula CH4. It is the simplest alkane, and the principal component of natural gas.
Nitric Oxide (NO) is a gas with the chemical formula NO. Nitric oxide is a toxic air pollutant produced by automobiles and power plants.
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is a red or orange/brown gas with a characteristic sharp, biting odor. Nitrogen dioxide is one of the most prominent air pollutants. Long-term exposure to concentration levels above 40 - 100 mcg/m³ causes adverse health effects.
Nitrogen Oxides (NxOx) include dinitrogen oxide (N2O, nitrous oxide), dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3), dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), and dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5).
Oxygen (O2) is an atmospheric gas. The abundance of free oxygen is due to photosynthesis by plants.
Ozone is (O3) an unstable, poisonous allotrope of oxygen that is formed naturally in the ozone layer from atmospheric oxygen by electric discharge or exposure to ultraviolet radiation. It is also produced in the lower atmosphere by the photochemical reaction of certain pollutants. Ozone is a highly reactive oxidizing agent used to deodorize air, purify water, and treat industrial wastes.
Phosphine (PH3) is a colorless, spontaneously flammable, poisonous gas that has a fishy odor. It is used as a doping agent for solid-state components.
Silane (SiH4) is a colorless gas that is both flammable and pyrophoric (i.e., capable of igniting spontaneously upon contact with air). It has a repulsive odor. Silane is used as a silicon source for the epitaxial deposition of single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon, for the low-temperature chemical vapor deposition of silicon dioxide, and for the chemical vapor deposition of silicon nitride films. It also is used for growth of amorphous silicon films.
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a colorless, extremely irritating gas or liquid used in many industrial processes, especially the manufacture of sulfuric acid.
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is one of the most popular insulating gases (next to air). It is non-flammable, non-toxic, moderately inexpensive, and a good insulator because of its electronegativity. SF6 has breakdown strength of about three times that of air. At normal temperatures, it is non-corrosive and fairly inert; however, at temperatures above 500°C, SF6 decomposes. The decomposition products (i.e., fluorine) react with most substances, especially any water vapor.
Water vapor is water present in the atmosphere in gaseous form.